PHILOSOPHY PAST PAPERS
PHILOSOPHY REVISION SLIDES – COMPLETE UPSC SYLLABUS
PAPER – I – REVISION SLIDES
History and Problems of Philosophy :
Rationalism (Descartes, Spinoza, Leibniz): Cartesian Method and Certain Knowledge; Substance; God; Mind-Body Dualism; Determinism and Freedom.
Empiricism (Locke, Berkeley, Hume): Theory of Knowledge; Substance and Qualities; Self and God; Scepticism.
Kant: Possibility of Synthetic a priori Judgments; Space and Time; Categories; Ideas of Reason; Antinomies; Critique of Proofs for the Existence of God
Moore, Russell and Early Wittgenstein: Defence of Commonsense; Refutation of Idealism; Logical Atomism; Logical Constructions; Incomplete Symbols; Picture Theory of Meaning; Saying and Showing.
Logical Positivism: Verification Theory of Meaning; Rejection of Metaphysics; Linguistic Theory of Necessary Propositions.
Existentialism (Kierkegaard, Sartre, Heidegger): Existence and Essence; Choice, Responsibility and Authentic Existence; Being-in-the –world and Temporality.
Nyāya- Vaiśesika: Theory of Categories; Theory of Appearance; Theory of Pramāna; Self, Liberation; God; Proofs for the Existence of God; Theory of Causation; Atomistic Theory of Creation.
Schools of Vedānta: Brahman; Īśvara; Ātman; Jiva; Jagat; Māyā; Avidyā; Adhyāsa; Moksa; Aprthaksiddhi; Pancavidhabheda