VARIOUS SECURITY FORCES AND AGENCIES AND THEIR MANDATE
The Assam Rifles is the oldest paramilitary force of India. Over the course of its history, the Assam Rifles and its predecessor units have served in a number of roles, conflicts and theatres including World War I where they served in Europe and the Middle East, and World War II where they served mainly in Burma. In the post World War II period the Assam Rifles has expanded greatly as has its role. There are currently 46 battalions of Assam Rifles with a sanctioned strength of 63,747 personnel.
It is under the control of the Indian Ministry of Home Affairs (MHA) and they perform many roles including the provision of internal security under the control of the army through the conduct of counter insurgency and border security operations, provision of aid to the civil power in times of emergency, and the provision of communications, medical assistance and education in remote areas. In times of war they can also be used as a combat force to secure rear areas if needed. Since 2002 it has been guarding the Indo–Myanmar barrier as per the government policy “one border one force
Special Frontier Force (SSF)
The Special Frontier Force is a covert paramilitary special force which operates under India’s external intelligence agency R&AW and reports directly to the Cabinet Secretariat. It was originally raised in the aftermath of the 1962 Sino-Indian war as a special force for covert operations behind Chinese lines in the event of another war with China. However, it was never used for its intended role and has mainly served as an elite special operations and counter-insurgency force. At its genesis, it was made up of only Tibetian refugees but over the years this has been diluted and Indian’s now form a significant part of this force.
Since SFF falls under RAW and not Ministry of Defence, it is not answerable to the Indian parliament. This feature of SFF has been used to India’s benefit by using SFF to further India’s strategic interests without ever accepting it. For instance, it was used for clandestine ELINT operations behind Chinese lines, details of which remain classified till date. Other significant operations by SFF include Operation Eagle during Bangladesh Liberation War, Operation Bluestar, protecting Indian PM in the aftermath of Indira Gandhi’s assassination and Operation Vijay.
Indian Coast Guard
The Indian Coast Guard is a multi-mission organization, conducting round-the-year real-life operations at sea. Despite being relatively small, it has a wide range of task capabilities for both surface and air operations.
The organization is headed by the Director General Indian Coast Guard (DGICG) exercising his overall command and superintendence from the Coast Guard Headquarters (CGHQ) located at New Delhi. At CGHQ, he is assisted by four Deputy Director Generals of the rank of Inspector General, and other senior officers heading various staff divisions.
For effective command and control, the Maritime Zones of India are divided into five Coast Guard Regions, namely, North-West, West, East, North-East and Andaman & Nicobar, with the respective Regional Headquarters located at Gandhinagar, Mumbai, Chennai, Kolkata and Port Blair. The Coast Guard Regions are commanded by Officers of the rank of Inspector General.
The regions are further divided into twelve Coast Guard ‘Districts’, one each for the nine coastal states on the mainland, two in the Andaman & Nicobar Region, and one at Kavaratti in the Lakshadweep and Minicoy Islands. Each Coast Guard District comprises of one or more Coast Guard Stations. In addition, there are Coast Guard Air Stations (CGAS) and Air Enclaves (CGAE) for air operations from various locations along the coastline.
Central Armed Police
Central Industrial Security Force (CISF)
The CISF came into existence in 1969 with a modest beginning, having three battalions, to provide integrated security cover to the Public Sector Undertakings (PSUs) which, in those years, occupied the commanding heights of the economy. In a span of four decades, the Force has grown several folds to reach one lakh forty eight thousand and three hundred seventy one personnel today. With globalization and liberalization of the economy, CISF is no longer a PSU-centric organization. Instead, it has become a premier multi-skilled security agency of the country, mandated to provide security to major critical infrastructure installations of the country in diverse areas.
CISF is currently providing security cover to nuclear installations, space establishments, airports, seaports, power plants, sensitive Government buildings and ever heritage monuments. Among the important responsibilities recently entrusted to the CISF are the Delhi Metro Rail Corporation, VIP Security, Disaster Management and establishment of a Formed Police Unit (FPU) of the UN at Haiti.
Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF)
Central Reserve Police Force came into existence as Crown Representative’s Police on 27th July 1939. It became the Central Reserve Police Force on enactment of the CRPF Act on 28th December 1949. It has completed 78 years of glorious history.
The Force has grown into a big organization with 242 Bns, (including 204 executive Bns, 6 Mahila Bns, 15 RAF Bns, 10 CoBRA Bns, 5 Signal Bns and 1 Special Duty Group, 1 Parliament Duty Group), 43 Group Centres, 20 Training Institutions, 3 CWS, 7 AWS, 3 SWS, 4 Composite Hospitals of 100 bed and 17 Composite Hospitals of 50 bed.
The Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF) is the premier central police force of the Union of India for internal security. Originally constituted as the Crown Representative Police in 1939, it is one of the oldest Central para military forces (now termed as Central Armed Police Force). CRPF was raised as a sequel to the political unrest and the agitations in the then princely States of India following the Madras Resolution of the All-India Congress Committee in 1936 and the ever-growing desire of the Crown Representative to help the vast majority of the native States to preserve law and order as a part of the imperial policy.
During the early 1950s, the performance of the CRPF detachments in Bhuj, the then Patiala and East Punjab state Union (PEPSU) and Chambal ravines was appreciated by all quarters. The force played a significant role during the amalgamation of the princely States into the Indian Union. It helped the Union Government in disciplining the rebellious princely States of Junagarh and the small principality of Kathiawar in Gujarat which had declined to join the Indian Union.
The CRPF bore the brunt of the first Chinese attack on India at Hot Springs (Ladakh) on October 21, 1959. A small CRPF patrol was ambushed by the Chinese in which ten of its men made their supreme sacrifice for the country. Their martyrdom on October 21 is remembered throughout the country as the Police Commemoration Day every year.
During the Chinese aggression of 1962, the Force once again assisted the Indian Army in Arunachal Pradesh. Eight CRPF personnel were killed in action. In 1965 and 1971 Indo-Pak wars also the Force fought shoulder-to-shoulder with the Indian Army, both on the Western and Eastern borders.
The commitments of the Force continue to be very high in the North-East in dealing with the insurgency.
Rapid Action Force
The Union Home Ministry established the Rapid Action Force (RAF) on 11 December 1991, with the mission of responding to large scale communal riots and related public disorders. This specially trained anti-riot force became fully operational in October 1992, and there are currently 10 battalions comprised of personnel from all communities. RAF is deployed to cover most of the politically volatile parts of the India.
In 1992, ten batallions were converted & reorganised into the elite Rapid Action Force (RAF), to deal with riots and were placed in communally sensitive areas. Young CRPF personnel with quick reflexes, maturity and un-biased views were selected and posted to these Bns.
Five Battalions became functional during October 1992 while the remaining five became operational in April 1994. The area of responsibility of each RAF Bn is approximately 400 Kms radious from the Bn HQr. The special features of the RAF are that each team is independently operational and mobile. They have a distinctive uniform and have to act in zero response time. Each Coy has a Mahila component and additional Para-medical staff for first aid, rescue and relief.
In between spells of duty, RAF undertake intensive familiarisation exercises in communally sensitive areas to familiarise themselves with the area. To make bridges with the public, RAF also undertakes socially useful work such as children education, adult literacy, tree plantation, medical camps, hygiene education etc. and also adoption of villages for all round focused development.
The increasing communal tensions and riots during the early nineties has been putting a serious strain on the secular structure of Indian Society. Consequently the Government took a well considered decision to set up a special anti-riot force which could reach the place of occurrence with the quickest possible speed and deal with communal riot or riot-like situation in an absolutely objective and non-partisan manner.
The Govt. of India had accorded approval for setting up the Commando Battalions for Resolute Action (CoBRA) for guerrilla/jungle warfare type operations for dealing with extremists and insurgents.
The Govt. accorded sanction of raising of 10 unattached battalions of CoBRA in CRPF, with a Sector Headquarter for these battalions headed by an Inspector General.
Border Security Force
The Border Security Force (BSF) is a Border Guarding Force of India. Established on December 1, 1965, it is a paramilitary force charged with guarding India’s land border during peace time and preventing transnational crime. It is a Union Government Agency under the administrative control of Ministry of Home Affairs.It is one of many law enforcement agency of India.It currently stands as the world’s largest border guarding force.
The BSF, has emerged as an elite force of the country having excelled with distinction in the 1971 war with Pakistan. Its ethos is “Any task, any time, any where” and the BSF has given blood and sweat to execute its motto “Jeevan Paryant Kartavya”.
The concept of border fencing, flood lighting and construction of roads has been introduced with the aim to stop infiltration/exfiltration on the Western and Eastern borders.
ITBPF was raised on 24 Oct, 1962. Presently, ITBP is deployed on border guarding duties from Karakoram Pass in Ladakh to Jachep La in Arunachal Pradesh covering 3488 km of Indo-China Border and manning Border Outposts on altitudes ranging from 9000’ to 18700’ in the Western, Middle and Eastern sectors of the Indo-China Border.
ITBPF is a specialized mountain force and most of the officers and men are professionally trained mountaineers and skiers. Being the first responder for natural disaster, ITBPF has been carrying out numerous rescue and relief operations across the country.
The National Security Guard (NSG) is an Indian special forces unit under the Ministry of Home Affairs MHA). It was raised in 1984, following Operation Blue Star and the assassination of Indira Gandhi, “for combating terrorist activities with a view to protect states against internal disturbances”.
NSG is under the authority of Ministry of Home Affairs. However it is not categorised under the uniform nomenclature of Central Armed Police Forces. It has a special forces mandate, and its core operational capability is provided by the Special Action Group (SAG) which is drawn from the Indian Army. The Special Rangers Group (SRG), the police component of NSG, which also handles VIP security, is composed of personnel on deputation from other Central Armed Police Forces and State Police Forces.:p 455, para7.19.17
The NSG personnel are often referred to in the media as Black Cats because of the black dress and black cat insignia worn on their uniform.[
Railway Protection Force (RPF)
The Railway Protection Force (RPF) is a security force of India entrusted with protecting railway passengers, passenger area and railway property of the Indian Railways .This is the only central armed police force (CAPF) which has the power to arrest, investigate and prosecute criminals. The force is under the authority of Ministry of Railways (India). The strength of RPF is about 65,000.
Special Protection Group-SPG
The Special Protection Group (SPG) is “an armed force of the Union for providing proximate security to the Prime Minister of India and former Prime Minister of India and members of their immediate families wherever they are.” It was formed in 1988 by an act of the Parliament of India.
Former PMs, their immediate family members, and family members of a serving Prime Minister may, if they choose, decline SPG security.
Sashastra Seema Bal
In the wake of the Chinese conflict in 1962, it was felt that the borders of the country could not be protected with the force of rifles alone. It required the backing and resolute will of a committed border population. In addition, it needed an in-depth understanding and familiarity of the terrain as well as the culture and ethos of the border population. A need was, therefore realized for the creation of a unique, unconventional yet specialized organization, which would function in the far, flung, vulnerable, strategic, remote, climatically and topographically difficult border areas and motivate the border population across several states towards the cause of protecting our national sovereignty.
Later, the jurisdiction of SSB was extended to Manipur, Tripura and Jammu (1965), Meghalaya (1975), Sikkim (1976), Rajasthan (1985), South Bengal, Nagaland and Mizoram (1989). Its area of coverage included 15 states. SSB in the erstwhile role was covering a population of more than 5.73 crores living in about 80,000 villages and about 9917 Kms of India’s international borders.
National Disaster Response Force –NDRF
NDRF, has acquired a niche for itself as a highly professional force. Over the years, the force has established itself as visible and reliable response force to provide specialist response during disasters be they natural or man-made. This force is one of its kinds of single largest stand-alone disaster response force in the world
Be it the devastating floods in Bihar, UP, MP in 2016, the Uttarakhand forest fire 2016, the Chennai floods 2015, the Assam Meghalaya floods 2014, the J&K floods 2014 or disasters like building collapse and train accidents like Kanpur Dehat train accident 2016, the NDRF has been the most prompt, proactive and visible force to save the people. NDRF has saved more than 5,52,018 lives in various disasters within country and abroad.
Apart from its forte of response, the force has actively conducted continuous community capacity building programmes in the country with a vision to work towards a disaster resilient n
CENTRAL INTELLIGENCE AND INVESTIGATION AGENCIES
The Intelligence Bureau (IB) is India’s internal intelligence agency. It was recast as the Central Intelligence Bureau in 1947 under the Ministry of Home Affairs.
In 1909, the Indian Political Intelligence Office was established in England in response to the development of Indian revolutionary activities, which came to be called the Indian Political Intelligence (IPI) from 1921. This was a state-run surveillance and monitoring agency. The IPI was run jointly by the India Office and the Government of India and reported jointly to the Secretary of the Public and Judicial Department of the India Office, and the Director of Intelligence Bureau (DIB) in India, and maintained close contact with Scotland Yard and MI5.
Research and Analysis Wing
Until 1968, the Intelligence Bureau (IB), which is responsible for India’s internal intelligence, also handled external intelligence. But after India’s miserable performance in a 1962 border war with China, the need for a separate external intelligence agency was clear. During that conflict, “our intelligence failed to detect Chinese build up for the attack,” writes Maj. Gen. VK Singh, a retired army officer who did a stint in RAW, in his 2007 book, India’s External Intelligence: Secrets of Research and Analysis Wing.
As a result, India established a dedicated external intelligence agency, the Research and Analysis Wing. Founded mainly to focus on China and Pakistan, over the last forty years the organization has expanded its mandate and is credited with greatly increasing India’s influence abroad. Experts say RAW’s powers and its role in India’s foreign policy have varied under different prime ministers. RAW claims that it contributed to several foreign policy successes:
1. the creation of Bangladesh in 1971;
2. India’s growing influence in Afghanistan;
3. the northeast state of Sikkim’s accession to India in 1975;
4. the security of India’s nuclear program;
5. the success of African liberation movements during the Cold War.
Over the last forty years the organization has expanded its mandate and is credited with increasing India’s influence.
Narcotics Control Bureau-NCB
The Narcotics Control Bureau was created on 17 March 1986 to enable the full implementation of The Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1985 and fight its violation through the Prevention of Illicit Trafficking in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances Act, 1988. The law was established to fulfill India’s treaty obligations under the Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and United Nations Convention against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances. Officers in this organisation are drawn from Indian Revenue Service, Indian Police Service and Paramilitary forces in addition to directly recruited members.
Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D)
The Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D), was set up on 28 August 1970 in furtherance of the objective of the Government of India for the modernisation of police forces. It has evolved as a multifaceted, consultancy organisation. At present it has 4 divisions – Research, Development, Training and Correctional Administration.
Functions of the Bureau of Police Research and Development (BPR&D) are different for each of the four divisions and are as follows:
Analysis and study of crime and problems of general nature affecting the police, e.g.,
1. Trends and causes of crime.
2. Prevention of crime-preventive measures, their effectiveness and relationship with crime.
3. Organisation, strength, administration, methods, procedures and techniques of the police forces and their modernisation, police act and manuals.
4. Improvements in methods of investigation, utility, and results of introducing scientific aids and punishment.
5. Inadequacy of laws.
6. Juvenile delinquency.
7. Police Uniform, badges, medals, decorations, colours, and flags, police drill, warrant of procedure etc.
8. Assistance of Police Research programmes in States and Union Territories, processing and coordination of research projects, sponsoring extra mutal research.
9. Work relating to Standing Committee on Police Research.
10. Police Science Congress & other conferences and seminars relating to study of police problems.
11. Participation in social defence and crime prevention programmes.
12. Participation in the work of the United Nations in the field of prevention of crime and treatment of offenders.
13. Maintenance of all India statistics of crime.
14. Statistical analysis of trends of crime.
15. Documentation relating to Police Science and Criminology.
Central Detective Training Schools, Kolkata, Hyderabad & Chandigarh.
1. To evaluate training programmes with a view to securing such standardisation and uniformity in the training arrangements including courses, syllabi and curricula for various ranks in the States and Union Territories as may be desirable and to suggest modifications and improvements that may be considered necessary from time to time to meet new challenges and problems.
2. To help devise new refresher, promotion, specialist and orientation courses considered necessary for the different grades and kinds of police offers.
3. Work relating to the establishment of the Central Medico Legal Institute and the Central Traffic Institute.
4. To prepare, in coordination with the police training institutions, standard manuals, textbooks, pamphlets, lecture notes, case studies, practical exercises and other educative literature for use in these institutions.
5. To distribute relevant literature to Inspectors General/DIG(Training) in the States for circulation to officers in order to familiarise them with training concepts and to strengthen training consciousness among the higher ranks.
National Crime Records Bureau
The National Crime Records Bureau, abbreviated to NCRB, is an Indian government agency responsible for collecting and analysing crime data as defined by the Indian Penal Code (IPC). NCRB is headquartered in New Delhi and is part of the Ministry of Home Affairs(MHA), Government of India. The current Director of NCRB is Ish Kumar (IPS), who replaced Shri Radha Krishna Kini A (IPS) in January 2017.
NCRB was set-up in 1986 to function as a repository of information on crime and criminals so as to assist the investigators in linking crime to the perpetrators. It was set up based on the recommendation of the Task force and National Police Commission by merging the Directorate of Coordination and Police Computer (DCPC), Statistical Branch of BPR&D, Inter State Criminals Data Branch of CBI and Central Finger Print Bureau of CBI.
The Directorate of Revenue Intelligence
The Directorate of Revenue Intelligence (DRI) is an intelligence agency. It is India’s chief anti-smuggling intelligence, investigations and operations agency.
The Directorate is run by officers from the Central Board of Excise and Customs who are posted in its various Zonal Units as well as in Indian embassies abroad as part of the Customs Overseas Intelligence Network. It is headed by a Director General of the rank of Special Secretary to the Government of India.
DRI works to secure India’s national and economic security by preventing the outright smuggling of contraband such as firearms, gold, narcotics, Fake Indian Currency notes, antiques, wildlife and environmental products. Moreover it also works to prevent the proliferation of black money, commercial frauds and trade based money laundering. Though its early days were committed to combating the smuggling in of gold, it now also addresses narcotics and economic crimes. DRI routinely makes fake Indian currency note seizures. In the last 5 years, the DRI has seized more than 540 kg of heroin and 7,409 kg of ephedrine along with other narcotics and psychotropic substances
The Central Bureau of Investigation traces its origin to the Special Police Establishment (SPE) which was set up in 1941 by the Government of India. The functions of the SPE then were to investigate cases of bribery and corruption in transactions with the War & Supply Deptt. Of India during World War II. Superintendence of the S.P.E. was vested with the War Department. Even after the end of the War, the need for a Central Government agency to investigate cases of bribery and corruption by Central Government employees was felt.
The Delhi Special Police Establishment Act was therefore brought into force in 1946. This Act transferred the superintendence of the SPE to the Home Department and its functions were enlarged to cover all departments of the Govt. of India. The jurisdiction of the SPE extended to all the Union Territories and could be extended also to the States with the consent of the State Government concerned.
Initially the offences that were notified by the Central Government related only to corruption by Central Govt. servants. In due course, with the setting up of a large number of public sector undertakings, the employees of these undertakings were also brought under CBI purview. Similarly, with the nationalisation of the banks in 1969, the Public Sector Banks and their employees also came within the ambit.
The superintendence of CBI related to investigation of offences under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 lies with the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) and in other matters with the Department of Personnel & Training (DOPT) in the Ministry of Personnel, Pension & Grievances of the Government of India.
CBI recruits Sub-inspectors through the Staff Selection Commission (SSC), which publishes its recruitment notice in Employment News and other leading dailies. CBI also inducts officers in the ranks of Inspector of Police and above from the State and Union Territory Police forces on deputation. Non-police officers are also taken on deputation in CBI.
CBI has grown into a multidisciplinary investigation agency over a period of time. Today it has the following three divisions for investigation of crime:-
(i) Anti-Corruption Division – for investigation of cases under the Prevention of Corruption Act, 1988 against Public officials and the employees of Central Government, Public Sector Undertakings, Corporations or Bodies owned or controlled by the Government of India – it is the largest division having presence almost in all the States of India.
(ii) Economic Offences Division – for investigation of major financial scams and serious economic frauds, including crimes relating to Fake Indian Currency Notes, Bank Frauds and Cyber Crime.
(iii) Special Crimes Division – for investigation of serious, sensational and organized crime under the Indian Penal Code and other laws on the requests of State Governments or on the orders of the Supreme Court and High Courts.
The laws under which CBI can investigate Crime are notified by the Central Government under section 3 of the DSPE Act.
A large part of crime unearthed by CBI of corruption and serious offences are based on oral information provided by individuals in confidence. CBI has a very well laid down policy of handling such information and informants, which is followed scrupulously. The informant is only handled by the officer to whom the information has been provided. Disclosure of the identity of the informant cannot be demanded even by the senior officers of the officer to whom the information has been provided. The identity of such informant is never put in writing in any record. It is not even disclosed to the courts. Courts also do not have powers to compel CBI to disclose the identity of the informant.
No action is initiated by CBI on such information without subjecting them to discreet verification. While taking care that the secrecy of the information is not leaked, such information is put to detailed verification. It is only after ensuring that a prima facie criminal case is made out, a criminal case is registered and further action taken.
CENTRAL FORENSIC INSTITUTIONS
Central Forensic Science Laboratory (CFSL), CBI
The Central Forensic Science Laboratory, (CBI) New Delhi was established in the Year 1968 as a scientific department to provide scientific support and services to the investigation of crime. Besides this, the CFSL has Scientific Aids Unit located at CBI Branch in Chennai. The Central Forensic Science Laboratory, CBI, New Delhi today is one of the most comprehensive Laboratories in the country with 10 fully equipped Divisions namely Physics, Chemistry, Biology, Serology, Ballistics, Documents, Finger Prints, Forensic Psychology, Photo, Computer Forensic Science & Scientific Aids divisions with addition of state-of-the-art laboratories for Computer Forensics and DNA profiling.
CFSL, CBI, New Delhi is a scientific department under the administrative control of CBI and overall control of the Ministry of Home Affairs with the Govt. of India. CFSL undertakes the scientific analysis of crime exhibits referred by CBI, Delhi Police, Judiciary and Vigilance Departments of Ministries & Undertakings & State/Central Govt. Departments. The experts of CFSL examine the exhibits forwarded by the Investigating Agencies and render expert opinion and substantiate their opinions in the Court of Law through court testimony and evidence. Scientists/experts also impart training to the CBI Investigating Officers and to other trainees of Forensic Science. The laboratory also undertakes R & D work related to art & skill developments in forensic scien
The Directorate of Forensic Science Services (DFSS) is a nodal to propagate and carry out best forensic science practices in the country to serve the cause of criminal justice delivery system. DFSS has been established independently in the year 2002 bifurcated from the BPR&D, New Delhi. Central Forensic Science Laboratory (CFSL) formerly known as Central Forensic Institute was established in the year 2011 along with CFSL Pune and Guwahati, under the DFSS.
National Counter Terrorism Centre- NCTC
The National Counter Terrorism Centre (NCTC) is a proposed federal anti-terror agency to be created in India, modelled on the National Counterterrorism Center of the USA. The proposal arose after the 2008 Mumbai attacks a.k.a. 26/11 attacks where several intelligence and operational failures revealed the need for a federal agency with real time intelligence inputs of actionable value specifically to counter terrorist acts against India. The proposal has however met with much criticism from the Chief Ministers of various states who see this as a means of weakening India’s federalism.
The terrorist attacks on Mumbai in 2008 was unprecedented in its scale and intensity and betrayed gaping holes in India’s intelligence network with respect to the collection and coordination of intelligence and action between various agencies of the state and Union governments. While the Maharashtra Government was accused of having failed to act on intelligence inputs provided prior to the Mumbai attacks, it countered that the inputs were vague and no pre-emptive action could have been taken based on these inputs.
The attacks and the government’s response to them led to the resignation of the Union Home Minister Shivraj Patil and he was replaced by the Finance Minister P. Chidambaram who stated that one of his first tasks was to establish a strong federal counter terror agency that could co-ordinate with the states effectively by integrating intelligence inputs from the states.
It was in this context that the NCTC was mooted as an apex body, a single and effective point of control for all counter terrorism measures. The NCTC is modelled on the American NCTC and the British Joint Terrorism Analysis Centre.
NATGRID-National Intelligence Grid
NATGRID is an ambitious counter terrorism programme, which will utilise technologies like Big Data and analytics to study and analyse the huge amounts of data from various intelligence and enforcement agencies to help track suspected terrorists and prevent terrorist attacks. A post Mumbai 26/11 attack measure, NATGRID aims to mitigate a vital deficiency — lack of real time information, which was considered to be one of the major hurdles in detecting US terror suspect David Headley’s movement across the country during his multiple visits between 2006 and 2009.NATGRID’s data sources include records related to immigration entry and exit, banking and financial transactions and telecommunications.
The agencies concerned include the Intelligence Bureau, local police and revenue and customs departments. According to the Union Home Ministry proposal, the NATGRID, which is still in a nascent stage, will connect, in different phases, data providing organisations and users besides developing a legal structure through which information can be accessed by the law enforcement agencies. In the first phase, 10 user agencies and 21 service providers will be connected, while in later phases about 950 additional organisations will be connected. In subsequent years, over 1,000 additional organisations will be connected.
The National Security Council
The National Security Council (NSC) of India is an executive government agency tasked with advising the Prime Minister’s Office on matters of national security and strategic interest. It was established by the Atal Bihari Vajpayee government, with Brajesh Mishra as the first National Security Adviser. Prior to the formation of the NSC, these activities were overseen by the Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister.
Besides the National Security Advisor (NSA), The Deputy National Security Advisor (DNSA), The Ministers of Defence, External Affairs, Home, Finance of the Government of India, and the Deputy Chairman of the NITI Aayog are members of the National Security Council. Other members may be invited to attend its monthly meetings, as and when required.
Strategic Policy Group
The Strategic Policy Group is the first level of the three tier structure of the National Security Council. It forms the nucleus of the decision-making apparatus of the NSC. Cabinet Secretary is the chairman of the group