The Sayyid dynasty rose to power after the Tughlaqs. They were essentially the rulers of the Delhi Sultanate of India and reigned from 1414 to 1451.
The history of the Sayyid dynasty is not clearly known, but they claimed to be the descendants of Prophet Mohammed. The Sayyid Empire was formed amidst chaos when there was no figure of authority to control Delhi.
The dynasty had four basic rulers. The founder of the dynasty was Khizr Khan who ruled from 1414-1421. He was known to be an able administrator and was very soft natured. He never resorted to bloody battles until it was absolutely necessary. It was his kind and docile nature that did not let him acquire many kingdoms during his reign. He defeated the Hindus of Daob, Kalithar and Chandwar since they had stopped paying tributes. He was busy suppressing revolts in different parts of his kingdom. He could not come up with many great reforms but still he was greatly respected and loved by his subjects.
After his death in 1444, his son took over the throne under the title of Alam Shah. During the year 1447, he visited a place called Baduan and loved it so much that he decided to stay there forever. He ruled Baduan till he died in the year 1478. And with his death, the Sayyid dynasty came to end.
The Lodhi dynasty was a Pashtun dynasty that ruled the Delhi Sultanate from 1451 to 1526. It was the last dynasty of the Delhi Sultanate. It was founded by Bahlul Khan Lodi when he replaced the Sayyid dynasty
The first Lodī ruler was Bahlūl Lodī , who was the most powerful of the Punjab chiefs, and replaced the last king of the Sayyid dynasty in 1451. He was a vigorous leader, holding together a loose confederacy of Afghan and Turkish chiefs with his strong personality. Starting with only the control of the region adjacent to Delhi, Bahlūl extended the effective boundaries of his empire to the borders of Bengal. This expansion involved the conquest of the powerful kingdoms of Malwa and Jaunpur.
Sikandar Lodi was the greatest of the Lodi Sultans. His real name was Nizam Khan. He ascended the throne of Delhi in 1488 after his father’s death. He crushed the unruly Afghan nobles and brought the haughty chiefs under his control. Sikandar also subdued the rulers of Dholpur, Chanderi and Gwalior. He annexed the province of Bihar and maintained friendly relations with the ruler of Bengal. In 1504, he founded a new city near Agra, which became his capital.
Like Balban, he maintained a splendid court and was greatly feared and respected by the nobles. But like Firoz Tughlak, he was a religious bigot and intolerant towards the Hindus. He is said to have destroyed many temples and raised mosques in their places.
Ibrahim Lodhi, an Afghan by blood was the last ruler of the Lodhi dynasty. He succeeded his father Sikander Lodhi but could not match his ability as a ruler. He was defeated by Babur in the battle of Panipat which saw the end of Delhi Sultanate and the beginning of the Mughal reign.
When Sikander died and Ibrahim ascended the throne, he faced resistance from a faction of the nobility. They advocated a partition of the kingdom and set up Jalal Khan, the younger brother of Ibrahim on the throne of Jaunpur. However Jalal was killed by Ibrahim’s men and he claimed the whole empire.
Ibrahim did not have good relations with the nobles. He ill-treated and imprisoned them. He was also cruel to his subjects and killed and poisoned many noblemen. Rebellions started to erupt in various corners of his kingdom.
One of his noblemen-Daulat Khan invited Babur to invade India and take revenge on their behalf. Babur responded to his call and set out to meet the Delhi Sultan.
Babur reached Ambala without any resistance and then prudently organized his army in a defensive position. For eight days he waited for Ibrahim’s army and when they finally arrived they were surprised by the unique strategies of Babur.
Despite having a great numerical advantage the Afghans lost the battle. Ibrahim being a brave soldier, led his army from the front and gave his life in the war.
Thus the first battle of Panipat (1526) witnessed the establishment of the Mughal kingdom in India.