The work done by the Parliament in modern times is not only varied in nature but is considerable in volume. The time at its disposal is limited.
It cannot, therefore, give close consideration to all the legislative and other matters that come up before it. A good deal of its business is, therefore, transacted by what are called the Parliamentary Committees.
Ad hoc and Standing Committees
The Parliamentary Committees are of two kinds, Ad hoc Committees and the Standing Committees.
Ad hoc Committees are appointed for a specific purpose and they cease to exist when they finish the task assigned to them and submit a report. The principal Ad hoc Committees are the Select and Joint Committees on Bills.
Others like the Railway Convention Committee, the Committees on the Draft Five Year Plans and the Hindi Equivalents Committee were appointed for specific purposes. Apart from the Ad hoc Committees, each House of Parliament has Standing Committees like the Business Advisory Committee, the Committee on Petitions, the Committee of Privileges and the Rules Committee, etc.
Ad hoc Committees are appointed for a specific purpose and they cease to exist when they finish the task assigned to them and submit a report. The usual ad hoc Committees are Select/Joint Committees on Bills and the Railway Convention Committee. Lok Sabha has the following Standing Parliamentary Committees with membership indicated against each. Some of these Committees are Joint Committees, as Members of both the Houses of Parliament are nominated/elected to them as per rules/relevant provisions in the Acts.
They are the Committees on Public Accounts, Public Undertakings, the Welfare of Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes, Offices of Profit, Salaries and Allowances of Members of Parliament, Empowerment of Women and Library Committee.
Apart from the above Standing Committees, there are Departmentally Related Standing Committees (DRSCs) covering under their jurisdiction various Ministries/Departments of the Government of India: