Governance is how society or groups within it, organize to make decisions. The complexity of Governance is difficult to capture in a simple definition. The need for governance exists anytime a group of people come together to accomplish an end. Though the governance literature proposes several definitions, most rest on three dimensions: authority, decision-making and accountability. At the Institute, our working definition of governance reflects these dimensions: Governance determines who has power, who makes decisions, how other players make their voice heard and how account is rendered.
Governance challenges include:
1. Effective representation of diverse population;
2. Ageing citizens;
3. Integrating transportation networks;
4. Preparing for the effects of climate change;
5. Everything is faster;
6. New disruptive technologies are both driving and enabling change and everything from policy making to service delivery to citizen activism;
7. As expectations grow, the relationship between government and citizens is changing;
8. Renewing our notions of privacy of openness;
9. Control of government data;
10. How to incorporate the direct involvement of citizens between elections while responding to the newly empowered activist citizens.
11. In short, rigid government control over data, decisions, and the social agenda is just no longer tenable.
Important Aspects of Governance
Governance is a very detailed concept that operates at every level, such as at home, village, municipality, nation, region or global level. The United Nations is considered an essential component of the millennium development goals, because good governance creates an underground base for the struggle against poverty, inequality and many other loopholes of humankind.
Governance should not be restricted to government because the three aspects of governance are mutually dependent in any society. In fact, social governance, the physical basis and political governance guarantee the well-being and unity of a society.
Under governance, complex compositions, processes, relationships and the involvement of institutions through which the civil and public groups raise their voices about their interests, abide by their rights and duties and mediate their differences. Royja plays an important role in comparison to civil society or private sector because it provides organizational mobility and political and jurisdictional systems for both social and economic governance.
The concept of governance or good governance in India is not new, but it is a new name for the traditional concept of Ramrajya and Swaraj. In the Indian scriptures containing a clear interpretation of moral values and religion, detailed descriptions of the king’s duties and rajdharma are found.
In the constitutional system of India, every person has the right to equality and protection before the law. In addition to the technology established by law, no person can be deprived of his life and his personal freedoms. In the case of Keshavanand Bharati v. State of Kerala , the majority opinion was revealed that the rule of law and the Indian democracy According to the amendment procedure described under section 368 of the Constitution, it can not be amended.
Access to justice is based on the fundamental principle that people should be aware of their rights and duties and their firm belief in the dignity of the law. But in reality the matter is in reverse. Some citizens do not know their rights and most people can not pay legal fees for lawyers. The most serious challenge is the complexity of justice because legal procedures are prolonged and expensive, and the judiciary has a lack of staff and physical tampered to resolve these issues. Millions of cases pending in high and low courts in India are pending and justice is delayed.
However, in front of Indian politics, there is a lot of challenges in the direction of good governance in which poverty, illiteracy, identity-based conflict, regionalism, Naxalism, terrorism etc. are some of the major challenges. In addition to these challenges, criminalization of politics and corruption are proving to be fatal in meaningful advance on the path of good governance. But despite all this, there have been some successful efforts of good governance in India.
Since the 1990s, efforts are being made by governmental and non-governmental agencies towards broadening the basis of good governance in India. The Chief Information Commissioners have been appointed in the Central and States under the Right to Information Act, 2005. In most of the states, Lokayukta is also working, however, due to lack of consent between the political parties, the appointment of Lokpal has not yet been done. A network of main public service agencies working in transport, communication, law and order, health, education, and other such areas has been created and they have been made user-friendly. Efforts have also been made in the areas of public planning, civil declaration, social audit, public hearing and e-governance
Citizen’s Charter is a document which represents a systematic effort to focus on the commitment of the Organisation towards its Citizens in respects of Standard of Services, Information, Choice and Consultation, Non-discrimination and Accessibility, Grievance Redress, Courtesy and Value for Money. This also includes expectations of the Organisation from the Citizen for fulfilling the commitment of the Organisation.
The term ‘Citizen’ in the Citizen’s Charter implies the clients or customers whose interests and values are addressed by the Citizen’s Charter and, therefore, includes not only the citizens but also all the stakeholders, i.e., citizens, customers, clients, users, beneficiaries, other Ministries/ Departments/ Organisations, State Governments, UT Administrations etc.
Citizen’s Charter initiative not only covers the Central Government Ministries/ Departments/ Organisations but also the Departments/ Agencies of State Governments and UT Administrations. Various Departments/ Agencies of many State Governments and UT Administrations have brought out their Charters. More than 600 Citizen’s Charters have so far been issued by Agencies/ Organisations of 24 States/ Union Territories.
The Citizen’s Charter is not legally enforceable and, therefore, is non-justiciable. However, it is a tool for facilitating the delivery of services to citizens with specified standards, quality and time frame etc. with commitments from the Organisation and its clients.
Components of a Citizen’s Charter
A good Citizen’s Charter should have the following components :-
(i) Vision and Mission Statement of the Organisation
(ii) Details of Business transacted by the Organisation
(iii) Details of ‘Citizens’ or ‘Clients’
(iv) Statement of services including standards, quality, time frame etc. provided to each Citizen/ Client group separately and how/ where to get the services
(v) Details of Grievance Redress Mechanism and how to access it
(vi) Expectations from the ‘Citizens’ or ‘Clients’
(vii) Additional commitments such as compensation in the event of failure of service delivery.
Developing and Implementing the Citizen’s Charter
Following road map may be adopted to formulate the Citizen’s Charter in an Organisation :-
(i) Setting up of a Task Force in the Organisation to formulate the Citizen’s Charter
(ii) Identification of all stakeholders in the Organisation and major services provided by Organisation;
(iii) Setting up of a Core Group in the Organisation consisting of representatives from all stakeholders which inter-alia may include Top Management, Middle Management, cutting-edge level, staff representatives, strategic partners, Customers/ Clients etc.;
(iv)Consultation with Clients/ Stakeholders/ Staff (Primarily at cutting-edge level) and their representative associations;
(v) Preparation of Draft Citizen’s Charter;
(vi) Submission of draft Charter to Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances
(vii) Consideration of the Charter by Core Group
(viii) Modification of Charter by the Ministry/ Department n the basis of suggestions/ observations by the Core Group
(ix) Approval by Minister-in-charge
(x) Formal issue/ release of Charter and putting up on website
(xi) Sending copies to People’s Representatives and all stakeholders
(xii) Appointment of a Nodal Officer to ensure effective implementation.
Implementing the Citizen’s Charter
Key points for implementation of the Charter are:-
(i) The need for citizens and staff to be consulted at every stage of formulation of the Charter;
(ii) Orientation of staff about the salient features and goals/objectives of the Charter; vision and mission statement of the department; and skills such as team building, problem solving, handling of grievances and communication skills;
(iii) The need for creation of database on consumer grievances and redress;
(iv) The need for wider publicity of the Charter through print media, posters, banners, leaflets, handbills, brochures, local newspapers etc. and also through electronic media;
(v) Earmarking of specific budgets for awareness generation and orientation of staff, and
(vi) Replication of best practices in this field.
Transparency and Accountability
Transparency and accountability are the main constituents of good governance, while good governance is a pre-condition to achieving human development which is the main concern or mission and the ultimate goal for all states’ programmes and activities.
Transparency and accountability are interrelated concepts and mutually reinforcing. Without transparency there couldn’t be any accountability. Unless there is accountability, transparency would be of no value. The existence of both conditions contributes to an effective, efficient and equitable management in public and private institutions.
In its democratic political aspect, decentralization as currently conceived and increasingly practiced in the international development community has two principal components: participation and accountability. Participation is chiefly concerned with increasing the role of citizens in choosing their local leaders and in telling those leaders what to do—in other words, providing inputs into local governance. Accountability constitutes the other side of the process; it is the degree to which local governments have to explain or justify what they have done or failed to do.
Improved information about local needs and preferences is one of the theoretical advantages of decentralization, but there is no guarantee that leaders will actually act on these preferences unless they feel some sort of accountability to citizens. Local elections are the most common and powerful form of accountability, but other mechanisms such as citizen councils can have limited influence.
Accountability can be seen as the validation of participation, in that the test of whether attempts to increase participation prove successful is the extent to which people can use participation to hold a local government responsible for its actions.
Types of Accountability
Accountability comes in two dimensions: that of government workers to elected officials; and that of the latter to the citizens who elect them.
Government Workers to Local Officials:
The first type can prove difficult to achieve, for civil servants, particularly professionals in such fields as health, education, agriculture –the very sectors that are most often decentralized– often have considerable incentive to evade control by locally elected officials. Such people generally have university training and sophisticated life-style practices hard to maintain in small towns and villages, career ambitions that transcend the local level, and goals for their children’s education that local schools cannot meet.
They may well also fear that quality standards for service delivery will suffer if provision is localized. Finally, they often find opportunities for corruption greater if they are supervised by distant managers through long chains of command than if they must report to superiors close at hand. For all these reasons, they tend to have strong urges to maintain ties with their parent ministries in the central government and to resist decentralization initiatives. And understandably, their colleagues at the center have a parallel interest in maintaining these ties, for they are much concerned about preserving national standards in service delivery and often about opportunities for venality as well (many corruption schemes provide for sharing ill gains upward through bureaucratic channels to the top).
Given all these reasons both good and bad for opposition, it is scarcely surprising that decentralization initiatives so often run into heavy bureaucratic resistance, and designers find themselves pressured to keep significant linkages between the field and the central ministries, especially concerning such issues as postings, promotions, and salaries.
Needless to say, such ties tend to undercut the capacity of elected officials to supervise government servants supposedly working for them. Some decentralized governance systems (e.g., Karnataka State in India) appear to have worked through these problems to establish popular control over the bureaucracy, but it has taken many years to do so.
Elected Leaders to the Citizenry
The second type of accountability is that of elected officials to the citizenry. Elections (provided they are free and fair) provide the most obvious accountability, but this is a rather blunt tool, exercised only at widespread intervals and offering only the broadest citizen control over government. Voters can retain or reject their governors, a decision that can certainly have salutary effects on governance, but these acts are summary judgments, generally not reactions to particular acts or omissions.
And when local elections do revolve around a given issue, such as schools, they necessarily leave everything else out of the picture. Citizens need more discriminating instruments to enforce accountability. Fortunately, a number of these are available.
Political parties can be a powerful tool for accountability when they are established and vigorous at the local level, as in many Latin American countries. They have a built-in incentive to uncover and publicize wrongdoing by the party in power and to present continuously an alternative set of public policies to the voters.
Civil society and its precursor social capital enable citizens to articulate their reaction to local government and to lobby officials to be responsive. These representations generally come through NGOs (though spontaneous protests can also be considered civil society), which, like political parties, often have parent organizations at the provincial or national level.
If citizens are to hold their government accountable, they must be able to find out what it is doing. At the immediate neighborhood level, word of mouth is perhaps sufficient to transmit such information, but at any higher level some form of media becomes essential. In some countries, print media can perform this function, but generally their coverage is minimal outside larger population centers. A feasible substitute in many settings is low-wattage AM radio, which is highly local, cheap to operate, and can offer news and talk shows addressing local issues.
Public meetings can be an effective mechanism for encouraging citizens to express their views and obliging public officials to answer them. Formal redress procedures have been included as an accountability mechanism in some decentralization initiatives. In other systems, formal recall procedures are available to citizens dissatisfied with their officials.
Transparency and Corruption
In theory these two phenomena should be inversely related, such that more transparency in local governance should mean less scope for corruption, in that dishonest behavior would become more easily detectable, punished and discouraged in future. The history of the industrialized countries indicates that this tend to be true in the longer term, but recent experience shows that this relationship is not necessarily true at all in the short run.
In the former Soviet countries, for example, local governance institutions have become much more open to public scrutiny in the 1990s, but at the same time there can be little doubt that corruption at all levels has greatly increased. It is to be hoped that the local mechanisms of accountability discussed above will in tandem with greater probity at the national level improve the degree of honesty at all levels, but at best this will take time. The message for the international development community is to press forward with as many of these accountability mechanisms as is feasible.
A second type of linkage between transparency and corruption has been noted by Manor when he notes that in India, while greater transparency in local governance was not accompanied by increased corruption, it did lead to popular perceptions of greater public malfeasance, simply because citizens became more aware of what was going on. This pattern has surely repeated itself in many other locales. Over time, to the extent that accountability mechanisms begin to become effective and corruption begins to decline, the citizenry should appreciate the improvement.
Over the years, a large number of initiatives have been undertaken by various State Governments and Central Ministries to usher in an era of e-Government. Sustained efforts have been made at multiple levels to improve the delivery of public services and simplify the process of accessing them.
e-Governance in India has steadily evolved from computerization of Government Departments to initiatives that encapsulate the finer points of Governance, such as citizen centricity, service orientation and transparency. Lessons from previous e-Governance initiatives have played an important role in shaping the progressive e-Governance strategy of the country.
Due cognizance has been taken of the notion that to speed up e-Governance implementation across the various arms of Government at National, State, and Local levels, a programme approach needs to be adopted, guided by common vision and strategy. This approach has the potential of enabling huge savings in costs through sharing of core and support infrastructure, enabling interoperability through standards, and of presenting a seamless view of Government to citizens.
The National e-Governance Plan (NeGP), takes a holistic view of e-Governance initiatives across the country, integrating them into a collective vision, a shared cause. Around this idea, a massive countrywide infrastructure reaching down to the remotest of villages is evolving, and large-scale digitization of records is taking place to enable easy, reliable access over the internet. The ultimate objective is to bring public services closer home to citizens, as articulated in the Vision Statement of NeGP.
The Government has accorded approval to the vision, approach, strategy, key components, implementation methodology, and management structure for NeGP. However, the approval of NeGP does not constitute financial approval(s) for all the Mission Mode Projects (MMPs) and components under it. The existing or ongoing projects in the MMP category, being implemented by various Central Ministries, States, and State Departments would be suitably augmented and enhanced to align with the objectives of NeGP.
In order to promote e-Governance in a holistic manner, various policy initiatives and projects have been undertaken to develop core and support infrastructure. The major core infrastructure components are State Data Centres (SDCs), State Wide Area Networks (S.W.A.N), Common Services Centres (CSCs) and middleware gateways i.e National e-Governance Service Delivery Gateway (NSDG), State e-Governance Service Delivery Gateway (SSDG), and Mobile e-Governance Service Delivery Gateway (MSDG).
The important support components include Core policies and guidelines on Security, HR, Citizen Engagement, Social Media as well as Standards related to Metadata, Interoperability, Enterprise Architecture, Information Security etc. New initiatives include a framework for authentication, viz. e-Pramaan and G-I cloud, an initiative which will ensure benefits of cloud computing for e-Governance projects.
Applications of e-Governance
Government to Citizen
This facilitates citizens to communicate directly with the government and provides access to various government services. Nowadays, the common citizen of India has to depend heavily on government services starting from birth certificate to death certificate. He has to transact with the government on every corner of his live. These services include E-Registration, E-Transportation, E-health, E-Education, E-help and E-Taxation etc., The Department of Science and Technology (DST), Gujarat has recently developed a network called Gujarat State Wide Area Network (GSWAN) for the same purpose mentioned above. A typical example of this model is GSWAN.
This web site contains the link of different government departments and so any citizen can know and get the information by this website. VAHAN and SARATHI are application software’s developed for State Transport Authority (STA), Tamil Nadu4. These softwares were developed by National Informatics Centre (NIC) to perform all activities through computer in the Regional Transport offices (RTOs), Unit offices (UO) and Check Posts.
Government to Government
Government to Government (G2G) is a non-commercial interaction between government departments and organizations. The major goal of this interaction is to improve data sharing among other government department for planning of new schemes or policies for the benefit of people. This substantially reduces paperwork if properly used. EAdministration, E-police, E-Courts etc., are the examples of such applications. Department of Information Technology (DIT), Government of Manipur has developed several G2G services for better interactions between government departments. These applications include Personnel Information System (PIS), all treasury departments of Manipur. Personnel Information System (PIS) is a project taken up by Government of Manipur for creation of database of Government Employees with necessary technical support by National Informatics Centre. TREASURYNET is a computerized system for processing of receipts and expenditures as well as compilation of accounts in all Treasuries of Manipur.
Government to Business
Government to Business (G2B) facilitates how the government purchases goods and services from business organizations through electronic media such as the Internet. eBiz is India’s first Government to Business (G2B) portal developed by Infosys in a public private partnership (PPP) model.
The eBiz platform will provide a one-stop shop for convenient and efficient online G2B services for the investor and business communities in India, reducing delays and complexity in obtaining information and services. E-Taxation, E-Licensing, E-Procurement and E-Tenders are some few examples of G2B applications.
Government to Employee
Government to Employee (G2E) is an online tool that provides communication between government units and their employees. The major goal of providing communication is to access information in regard to compensation and benefit policies, training opportunities etc., it also gives an effective way to provide e-learning to the employees, bring them together and to promote knowledge sharing among them. The IntraHaryana portal integrates all government transactions and services of various ministries and departments as well as governments and their employees.
State Wide Networks
The Government had approved the Scheme for establishing State Wide Area Networks (SWANs) across the country, in March, 2005 at a total outlay of Rs.3,334 crore to be expended by the Department under Grant-in-Aid of Rs. 2,005 crore, over a period of five years. Under this Scheme, technical and financial assistance are being provided to the States/UTs for establishing SWANs to connect all State/UT Headquarters up to the Block level via District/ sub-Divisional Headquarters, in a vertical hierarchical structure with a minimum bandwidth capacity of 2 Mbps per link.
Each of the State / UT can enhance the bandwidth up to 34 Mbps between SHQ and DHQ and upto 8 Mbps between DHQ and BHQ depending upon the utilization. SWAN is envisaged as the converged backbone network for data, voice and video communications throughout a State/UT with the following salient features:
1. One PoP at each State / District / Block Headquarter
2. Each PoP has Configurable Aggregation Equipment to enable vertical & horizontal connectivity Gateway to NICNET (National Backbone) for Inter-State connectivity.
3. State/ NIC would receive discounted price for BSNL BW cost
There are two Options for SWAN implementation as detailed below:
Option I – Public Private Partnership (PPP) Model State identifies a suitable PPP model (BOO, BOOT etc.) and selects an appropriate agency through a suitable competitive process for outsourcing the establishment, operation and maintenance of the Network.
Option II – NIC Model State designates NIC (National Informatics Centre) as the prime implementation agency for SWAN for establishment, operation and maintenance of the Network.
SWANs have been made operational in 34 States namely Andhra Pradesh, Chandigarh, Chhattisgarh, Delhi, Gujarat, Goa, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Jharkhand, Kerala, Karnataka, Lakshadweep, Maharashtra, Orissa, Punjab, Puducherry, Sikkim, Tamil Nadu, Tripura, Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Assam, Bihar, Madhya Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram, Nagaland, Meghalaya Rajasthan Dadar & Nagar Haveli and Daman & Diu.
The States/UTs are utilizing the core infrastructure of SWAN for providing the closed user connectivity to various Government offices in the State/UTs. These offices access their applications through SWAN in secured environment hosted at State Data Centres (SDCs). Implementation of SWAN in remaining 2 States/UTs, Andaman & Nicobar Islands has issued LOI for the selection of Network operator and Jammu & Kashmir is in the process of finalisation of bid process.
Priorities and Objectives
National e-Governance Plan has been launched with the aim of improving delivery of Government services to citizens and businesses, is guided by the following vision: “Make all Public Services accessible to the common man in his locality, through common service delivery outlets and ensure efficiency, transparency and reliability of such services at affordable costs to realize the basic needs of the common man.”
Considering the critical need for e-Governance, mobile Governance and Good Governance in the country, the approach and key components of e-Kranti have been approved with the vision of “Transforming e-Governance for Transforming Governance”. The e-Kranti framework addresses the electronic delivery of services through a portfolio of mission mode projects that cut across several Government Departments.
The objectives of ‘e-Kranti’ are as follows:
1. To redefine NeGP with transformational and outcome-oriented e-Governance initiatives
2. To enhance the portfolio of citizen centric services
3. To ensure optimum usage of core Information & Communication Technology (ICT)
4. To promote rapid replication and integration of e-Governance applications
5. To leverage emerging technologies
6. To make use of more agile implementation models
1. Transformation and not Translation – All project proposals must involve a substantial transformation in the quality, quantity and manner of delivery of services and significant enhancement in productivity and competitiveness.
2. Integrated Services and not Individual Services – A common middleware and integration of the back-end processes and processing systems are required to facilitate integrated service delivery to citizens.
3. Government Process Reengineering (GPR) – To mandate GPR as the essential first step in all new MMPs without which a project may not be sanctioned. The degree of GPR should be assessed and enhanced for the existing MMPs.
4. ICT Infrastructure on Demand – Government departments should be provided with ICT infrastructures, such as connectivity, cloud and mobile platform on demand. In this regard, National Information Infrastructure (NII), which is at an advanced stage of project formulation, would be fast-tracked by DeitY.
5. Cloud by Default – The flexibility, agility and cost-effectiveness offered by cloud technologies would be fully leveraged while designing and hosting applications. Government Cloud shall be the default cloud for Government Departments.
6. Mobile First – All applications are designed/ redesigned to enable delivery of services through mobile.
7. Fast Tracking Approvals – To establish a fast – track approval mechanism for MMPs, once the Detailed Project Report (DPR) of a project is approved by the Competent Authority, empowered committees may be constituted with delegated powers to take all subsequent decisions
8. Mandating Standards and Protocols – Use of e-Governance standards and protocols as notified by DeitY be mandated in all e-governance projects
9. Language Localization – It is imperative that all information and services in e-Governance projects are available in Indian languages as well.
10. National GIS (Geo-Spatial Information System) – NGIS to be leveraged as a platform and as a service in e-Governance projects.
11. Security and Electronic Data Preservation – All online applications and e-services to adhere to prescribed security measures including cyber security. The National Cyber Security Policy 2013 notified by DeitY must be followed.
Thrust areas outlined in Digital India
1. Technology for Education – e-Education – All schools will be connected to broadband. Free WiFi will be provided in all secondary and higher secondary schools (coverage would be around 250,000 schools). A programme on digital literacy would be taken up at the national level. Massive Online Open Courses (MOOCs) shall be developed and leveraged for e-Education.
2. Technology for Health – e-Healthcare – e-Healthcare would cover online medical consultation, online medical records, online medicine supply, pan-India exchange for patient information, etc.
3. Technology for Farmers – This would facilitate farmers to get real-time price information, online ordering of inputs and online cash, loan, and relief payment with mobile banking.
4. Technology for Security – Mobile based emergency services and disaster-related services would be provided to citizens on a real-time basis so as to take precautionary measures well in time and minimize loss of lives and properties.
5. Technology for Financial Inclusion – Financial inclusion shall be strengthened using mobile banking, Micro-ATM program and CSCs/ Post Offices.
6. Technology for Justice – Interoperable Criminal Justice System shall be strengthened by leveraging several related applications, i.e. e-Courts, e-Police, e-Jails and e-Prosecution.
7. Technology for Planning – National GIS Mission Mode Project would be implemented to facilitate GIS based decision making for project planning, conceptualization, design and development.
8. Technology for Cyber Security – National Cyber Security Co-ordination Centre would be set up to ensure safe and secure cyber-space within the country.
Challenges and Limitations to e- Governance
Digital India aims to have broadband networks that will span India’s cities, towns and 250,000 villages, along with a system of networks and data centres called the National Information Infrastructure. If successful, it could transform citizen access to multimedia information, content and services. It also gives the government access to a great deal of information.
After years of broadband and nationwide fibre-optic infrastructure targets, India remains stuck at a total of 15 million wire line broadband users. Yet mobile broadband use has exploded, currently standing at 85 million users, driven by apps like Facebook and WhatsApp, and the sharing of images and videos.
Experience shows that it is communications and content, not empty pipes, that drive network usage. And manufacturing content is not a government strength. Though mobile networks have reached most populated parts of India, the last mile is a long one: 42,300 villages still exist outside the reach of a mobile signal.
“Universal access” does not, however, guarantee a working network. Even in its major cities, India’s mobile network is so stressed that many say it’s broken, with call failures and drops a common complaint. An intense shortage of spectrum has driven up costs and driven down service quality for India’s telecom industry.
The objective is to increase the 140,000 facilities to 250,000, or one in nearly every village. It also aims to convert 150,000 post offices into multi-service centres. The vision is that the longest distance a villager or tribesperson should have to travel should be to the nearest CSC.
For decades, hundreds of e-governance projects have been piloted across India. Many were quick successes that however died out once the chief promoter, often a bureaucrat on a two-year posting, moved on.
The processes and services include digitising manual databases, introducing online applications and tracking, using online repositories for citizen documents, introducing publicly-visible government workflow automation, and public grievance redress. Experts say that almost every e-governance project that India needs has been successfully piloted somewhere in the country. The daunting task for Digital India will be to take successful pilot projects, replicate and scale them up.
e-Kranti comprises 41 large e-governance initiatives, called “mission mode projects”. They span e-education (all schools to get broadband and free wi-fi, as well as MOOCs – Massive Online Open Courses), e-Healthcare and technology for farming, security, financial inclusion, justice, planning and cyber-security. The sheer scale of these projects helps ensure that they do not meet the fate of most e-governance projects in India, which remain pilots.
Several have been completed successfully, including the overhauled passport service, and the “MCA21” project for company registration from the Ministry of Corporate Affairs.