Environment & Ecology

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Chapter 1: Ecology and Biomes

  • Ecozones – Food Chain – Niche Concepts
  • Food Webs – Trophic Levels – Pyramid of Numbers
  • Key Features of Biomes – Tundra Biome
  • Taiga Biome
  • Montane grasslands and shrublands – Tropical Rainforest
  • Tropical Monsoon Forests – Temperate Rainforests
  • Savannah Biome
  • Temperate grasslands – Mediterranean Shrublands – Desert biome

Chapter 2: Biodiversity

  • The Nagoya Protocol – Aichi Targets
  • CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora)
  • Biodiversity Hotspots
  • Legal Framework for Biodiversity Protection – Biodiversity Act 2002
  • Wildlife Protection Act 1972 – Wild Life Sanctuary – National Parks – Biosphere Reserves
  • Differences between Biosphere Reserves and National Parks/ Sanctuaries
  • Conservation Projects in India
  • Important Short Notes on Fauna and Flora for Prelims
  • Other Important Mammals
  • Biogeographic Regions of India

Chapter 3: Wetlands

  • Ramsar Convention on Wetlands
  • Forests – State of Forest Report 2015: Key Facts
  • Conflict over Forest Rights and tribal revolts
  • Coral Reefs in India

Chapter 4: Pollution Related Topics

  • Primary and Secondary Air Pollutants
  • Green House Effect
  • Ozone Hole
  • Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol 1989
  • Acid Rain
  • Land Degradation
  • Soil Pollution
  • Pesticides and Insecticides
  • Water Pollution
  • Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs)
  • Rotterdam Convention on Hazardous Substances
  • Mercury Poisoning – Minamata Disease
  • Thermal Pollution

Chapter 5: Domestic Laws on Pollution

  • Legislation on water
  • National Green Tribunal
  • Other Topics Related to Pollution
  • Biofuels
  • Green GDP
  • Bharat Stage Emission Standards

Chapter 6: Climate Change

  • Topics Related to Carbon
  • El Niño – La Niña – ENSO
  • Indian Ocean Dipole
  • Climate Change Negotiations