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Basic Features of the Constitution

The concept of the basic structure of the Constitution included:

  1. The Supremacy of the Constitution.
  2. A Republican and democratic form of government.
  3. The secular character of the Constitution.
  4. Separation of powers between the legislature, executive and the judiciary.
  5. The federal character of the Constitution.
  6. The mandate to build a welfare state contained in the Directive Principles of State Policy.
  7. The unity and integrity of the nation.

Hegde and Mukherjea identified a separate and shorter list of basic features:

  1. Sovereignty of India
  2. Democratic character of the polity
  3. Unity of the country
  4. Essential features of the individual freedoms secured to the citizens
  5. Mandate to build a welfare state

Jaganmohan Reddy stated that elements of the basic features were to be found in the Preamble of the Constitution and the provisions into which they translated such as:

  1. Sovereign democratic republic.
  2. Parliamentary democracy.
  3. Three organs of the State.
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