National Aerospace Laboratories
National Aerospace Laboratories (NAL) is India’s second largest aerospace firm after Hindustan Aeronautics (HAL). It was established by the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) at Delhi in 1959 and its headquarters was later moved to Bangalore in 1960.
The firm closely operates with HAL, DRDO and ISRO and has the prime responsibility of developing civilian aircraft in India.
NAL is a high technology oriented institution concentrating on advanced topics in the aerospace and related disciplines. Originally started as National Aeronautical Laboratory, it was renamed National Aerospace Laboratories to reflect its major involvement in the Indian space programme, its multidisciplinary activities and global positioning. It is India’s only civilian aerospace laboratory with a high level of competence and the expertise of its scientists is globally acknowledged.
NAL is equipped with facilities such as the Nilakantan Wind tunnel Centre and a computerised fatigue test facility. NAL also has facilities for investigating failures and accidents in aerospace.
Centre for Cellular & Molecular Biology (CCMB)
The Centre for Cellular & Molecular Biology (CCMB) is a premier research organization in frontier areas of modern biology. The objectives of the Centre are to conduct high quality basic research and training in frontier areas of modern biology, and promote centralized national facilities for new and modern techniques in the inter-disciplinary areas of biology.
CCMB was set up initially as a semi-autonomous Centre on April 1, 1977 with the Biochemistry Division of the then Regional Research Laboratory (presently, Indian Institute of Chemical Technology, IICT) Hyderabad forming its nucleus. Earlier, the Governing Board of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR) New Delhi, the apex body which constituted 44 research institutions in the country, approved the proposal in 1976 to establish such a Centre in view of the importance of research in the frontier and multi-disciplinary areas of modern biology.
CSIR-CIMFR is providing knowledge based support to the entire coal based energy chain encompassing exploration, mining and impact on the environment. Further, the laboratory is engaged in surveys of other mineral deposits and excavation for hydro-electric projects, tunnels and railways. It plays pivotal role in establishing the national coal inventory and is involved in maintaining the consistency of coal quality for power and other sectors leading to energy security and growth with high standards of safety, productivity and cleaner environment.
The electronics market of India is one of the largest in the world and is anticipated to reach US$ 400 billion in 2022 from US$ 69.6 billion in 2012. The market is projected to grow at a compound annual growth rate (CAGR) of 24.4 per cent during 2012-2020.
Total production of electronics hardware goods in India is estimated to reach US$ 104 billion by 2020. The communication and broadcasting equipment segment constituted 31 per cent, which is the highest share of total production of electronic goods in India in FY13, followed by consumer electronics at 23 per cent. Electronic exports from India was expected to reach US$ 8.3 billion in FY13, a CAGR of 27.9 per cent during FY07–12. Technological improvements and competitively cost effectiveness are main drivers for demand of Indian electronics products abroad.
The Government of India has set up Electronic Hardware Technology Parks (EHTPs), Special Economic Zones (SEZs) and a brought about a favourable climate for foreign direct investment (FDI). It has also increased liberalisation and relaxed tariffs to promote growth in the sector.
The Indian food and grocery market is the world’s sixth largest, with retail contributing 70 per cent of the sales. The Indian food processing industry accounts for 32 per cent of the country’s total food market, one of the largest industries in India and is ranked fifth in terms of production, consumption, export and expected growth. It contributes around 8.80 and 8.39 per cent of Gross Value Added (GVA) in Manufacturing and Agriculture respectively, 13 per cent of India’s exports and six per cent of total industrial investment.
The Indian gourmet food market is currently valued at US$ 1.3 billion and is growing at a Compound Annual Growth Rate (CAGR) of 20 per cent. India’s organic food market is expected to increase by three times by 2020.
The Council of Scientific & Industrial Research (CSIR) strives to provide scientific, industrial research and development that maximizes the economic & environmental and social benefit for the people of India. CSIR, with its complement of 10,000 highly qualified scientific & technical personnel, is amongst the largest R&D organization in the world for scientific and industrial research.
CLRI is a central hub in Indian leather sector with direct roles in education, research, training, testing, designing, forecasting, planning, social empowerment and leading in science and technology relating to leather. State-of-art facilities in CLRI support, innovation in leather processing, creative designing of leather products viz. leather garment, leather goods, footwear and development of novel environmental technologies for leather sector.
India was the world’s third-largest steel producer in 2016. The growth in the Indian steel sector has been driven by domestic availability of raw materials such as iron ore and cost-effective labour. Consequently, the steel sector has been a major contributor to India’s manufacturing output. The Indian steel industry is very modern with state-of-the-art steel mills. It has always strived for continuous modernisation and up-gradation of older plants and higher energy efficiency levels.
India’s crude steel output grew 10.7 per cent year-on-year to 25.76 million tonnes (MT) during January-March 2017. India’s crude steel output during April 2017 grew by 5.4 per cent year-on-year to 8.107 MT. India’s finished steel exports rose 102.1 per cent to 8.24 MT, while imports fell by 36.6 per cent to 7.42 MT in 2016-17. India’s steel exports rose 142 per cent in April 2017 to 747,000 tonnes over April 2016, while imports fell by 23 per cent to 504,000 tonnes in April 2017 over April 2016.
The steel industry and its associated mining and metallurgy sectors have seen a number of major investments and developments in the recent past.
Metals and Metallurgy
Rise in infrastructure development and automotive production are driving growth in the metals and mining sector in India. India has vast mineral potential with mining leases granted for longer durations of 20 to 30 years. India produces 88 minerals– 4 fuel-related minerals, 10 metallic minerals, 50 non-metallic minerals and 24 minor mineral. As of FY16, India had 1,878 operative mines – excluding mining areas for minor minerals, crude petroleum, natural gas and atomic minerals.
The Government of India has allowed 100 per cent Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in the mining sector and exploration of metal and non-metal ores under the automatic route, which will propel growth in the sector. Power and cement industries also aiding growth in the metals and mining sector. Demand for iron and steel is set to continue, given the strong growth expectations for the residential and commercial building industry.
CSIR-Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (IMMT) was setup in 1964 as Regional Research Laboratory, Bhubaneswar in the eastern part of India under the aegis of the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR), New Delhi. Renaming of IMMT was done in 2007 with a renewed research focus and growth strategy to be the global leader in the areas of minerals engineering and materials technology.
The institute has expertise in conducting basic research and technology oriented programs in a wide range of subjects to ensure a sustainable growth of the mining, mineral and metals industries. For the last one decade, main thrust of R&D at CSIR-IMMT has been to empower the Indian industries to meet the challenges of globalization by providing advanced and zero waste process know-how and consultancy services for commercial exploitation of natural resources through the public-private-partnership (PPP) approach. Today, CSIR-IMMT is the first choice for many mineral based industries; while it is trying to develop a niche in some of the advanced materials for greater value addition.
The Division formulated the Tenth Five Year Plan (TFYP) and the Annual Plan 2004-05 with the background of 8% growth rate envisaged by the Planning Commission. In TFYP, the R&D activities under the scheme ‘National Laboratories’ are focused under 57 networked projects. These are in three categories namely, Steering Committee identified mission mode programme; CSIR Working Group identified mission mode programmes; and Core Network programmes. Planning Commission, in principle approved 43 network projects in this particular year.
A substantial period has been spent in formulating the proposals and seeking in principle approval from the Planning Commission. The approved Tenth Plan allocation to CSIR is Rs.2430 crore as against a request of Rs.4545 crore. The Annual Plan allocation for 2004-05 under National Laboratories scheme is placed at Rs.650 crore.
In the Tenth Five Year Plan, CSIR has taken the R&D activities in networked fashion. The R&D projects are networked across the organization as well as for building capabilities and facilities that contribute to a vibrant innovation system consciously. Most of the programmes for the TFYP are formulated with the emphasis on networking of resources and capabilities to achieve better output in shorter time frame. CSIR has endeavoured to carve out a niche for itself through these areas. These R&D activities are multidisciplinary, competitive and knowledge driven and have been taken up as they are higher in value chain.
Network programmes on R&D activities are already started showing positive results. Few of them are Exploration and Exploitation of Microbial Wealth of India for novel compounds, Asthmatic and Allergic Disorders Mitigation Mission, Cell & Tissue Engineering, Special Electron Tube Technology, Green technologies for Organic chemicals, Ion sensitive Field Effect Transistor, Identification of Genes and Populations, New Building Construction Materials, Custom Tailored Special Materials, Development of Bio-chips for Identification of Foodborne Pathogens and other diseases, and Microbial conversion of Cholesterol, Development of Novel Polymeric Materials.
In the Tenth Five Year Plan, the R&D activities of National Laboratories are being pursued through fifty-seven networked projects. CSIR holds Annual Meets, to leverage enhanced performance from the networked projects, and to identify and address those issues, which could enhance the performance of networked projects. For the first time there has been a paradigm shift in the approach of the Tenth Plan through organizational networking. The aim of organizational networking is to maximize gain by synergising the strength available at various levels of CSIR. In order to facilitate speedy clearance on common matters of networking from CSIR Hqrs., it requires effective co-ordination between the participants and the nodal labs.
Rural Development Programme
An Advisory and Monitoring Committee was constituted by the DG of CSIR with the objectives, to advise on policy guidelines, to identify the key result projects, to recommend linkages & leveraging and to monitor the performance and progress of CSIR’s Rural Development Programme & Activities.
A Rural Action Plan was brought out by the committee to provide a new orientation of CSIR on Rural Development Programme towards some identified areas. The key activities of this plan are special allocations to CSIR laboratories launch of a quarterly publication entitled `Journal of Rural Technology’ which is available to NGOs/Voluntary Organizations etc. at subsidized rates; and setting up galleries at few centers depicting success stories of CSIR in the area of rural development in the future.